In early September, Russian state-controlled gas corporation Gazprom announced that Nord Stream 1 would be shut down indefinitely. | Foto: JanChr via flickr | CC BY-SA 2.0

Russia Cuts Off Nord Stream 1: How Will This Affect Germany’s Foreign Policy?

In early September, Russia announced an indefinite stoppage of gas deliveries to Germany via the Nord Stream 1 pipeline system, causing economic turmoil. Research findings on patterns in German and Russian policy and ongoing trends shed light on these events and their probable  future impact. Despite denials from Moscow, this is a Russian attempt to influence German policy on sanctions and Ukraine. This attempt is unlikely to succeed for now. However, future developments – notably major shifts on the Ukrainian battlefield, changes in German public sentiments, and specific dynamics within the Kremlin – could cause German policy to become more susceptible to Russia’s demands.


Die russische Flagge wird vor dem Gebäude des Europarats abgehängt.
Die russische Flagge wird vor dem Gebäude des Europarates entfernt. | Photo: © picture alliance / ASSOCIATED PRESS | Jean-Francois Badias

Kontrollierte Ent- und Verflechtung als Aufgabe der Nationalen Sicherheitsstrategie

In „Die große Illusion“ entwickelt der Publizist Norman Angell 1909 das Argument, dass Kriege sich für Staaten nicht mehr lohnen, weil sie durch den Handel miteinander ihren Wohlstand weit mehr vergrößern könnten, als durch militärische Eroberungen. Angell fasst damit das zentrale friedenspolitische Argument für Interdependenz zusammen: Die Förderung wechselseitiger Abhängigkeiten zwischen Staaten und ihren Gesellschaften […]


People holding signs saying "Russians Against War"
It is in Western countries’ long-term interest to invite Russians to experience other narratives than those distributed by the Kremlin. | Photo: Ehimetalor Akhere Unuabona | Unsplash License

The Battle for Minds and Hearts of Russians and the Double-sided Effect of Sanctions

Since the beginning of the war in Ukraine Western countries have imposed devastating sanctions on Russia. This blog argues that the current sanctions-regime help boost Kremlin-propaganda, ultimately diminishing the possibility that sanctions will procure a popular uprising or help stop the war. Western states and private organisations must avoid cultural and academic sanctions against Russians and explore ways of helping and influencing Russian civil society while comprehensive sanctions against Kremlin-linked entities are in place.